There were dozens of Porcelain Painting Studios operating throughout Germany and Austria in late 19th and early 20th century. These shops acquired blank porcelain plaques and plates from KPM and Hutschenreuther, and had all the necessary resources and equipment to paint, apply gilding and glaze, and fire these pieces producing some absolutely amazing works of art. One of the most prominent and successful such studios was Franz Xaver Thallmaier's (1890-1910). Located in Munich, he employed a number of talented porcelain painters. Unlike Wagner's shop "specializing" in portraits after Asti and other Victorian fluff with semi-nude girls and cupids, Franz Xaver Thallmaier picked more serious genre subjects. The prime course of his menu were female portraits after Joseph Stieler, especially when it came to "Royal Vienna" style plates. He also copied Defregger, Thumann and many other popular contemporary artists. Unfortunately, instead of paint or incision, he used paper labels to "mark" his plaques. Obviously, such labels often get destroyed or removed over time, which makes it impossible to identify most of Thallmaier studio's work. But those that survived give us a pretty good idea about the range and volume produced by this shop. Needless to say that his plaques do carry either KPM or Hutschenreuther's impressed markings that were applied to the blanks by manufacturers. It's indeed very important to realize that a KPM or Hutschenreuther mark on most of the plaques produced in late 19th and early 20th century, merely indicates where the blank was made, while the plaques were actually decorated by independent artists studios such as Franz Xaver Thallmaier's. Unlike porcelain plaques, Franz Xaver Thallmaier applied a painted mark to his plates. It consisted of a little red picture of an artist's figure usually accompanied by full or abbreviated name of the studio in black. All Thallmaier's plates have a rather plain cobalt blue border which suggests that, unlike many other plate decorating studios, Thallmaier did not employ a skillful gilder in his shop. So his plates, while always beautifully painted, lack those exquisite borders with raised gilding and "jewels" that we see so often on other "Royal Vienna" style plates produced during this period in Germany.